|Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects a tiny part of the retina at the back of your eye, called the macula. AMD causes changes to the macula, which leads to problems with your central vision. RCOphth RNIB Understanding AMD 2017|
|A cataract is a clouding of part of your eye called the lens. Your vision becomes blurred because the cataract is like frosted glass, interfering with your sight. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Cataracts 2017|
|Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the name given to a group of hereditary eye disorders. These disorders affect the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye, in which the first stages of seeing take place. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Retinitis Pigmentosa 2017|
|Retinal detachments often develop in eyes with retinas weakened by a hole or tear. This allows fluid to seep underneath, weakening the attachment so that the retina becomes detached – rather like wallpaper peeling off a damp wall. RCOphth RNIB Understanding retinal detachment 2017|
|Nystagmus is an involuntary movement of the eyes – usually from side to side, but sometimes the eyes oscillate up and down or even in a circular motion. Most people with nystagmus have vision which is much worse than average – well below what is considered to be short sighted. RCOphth RNIB Understanding nystagmus 2017|
|Glaucoma is the name for a group of eye conditions in which the optic nerve is damaged at the point at which it leaves the eye. This nerve carries information from the light sensitive layer in your eye, the retina, to the brain where it is received as a picture. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Glaucoma 2017|
|Estimates suggest that nearly one person in twenty five in the UK is affected by diabetes mellitus, a condition which means that, due to a lack of insulin, the body cannot cope normally with sugar and other carbohydrates in the diet. Diabetes can start in childhood, but more often begins in later life. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Diabetes Booklet 2017|
|Dry eye is an eye condition caused by a problem with tears. Dry eye can make your eye feel uncomfortable, red, scratchy and irritated. Despite the name, having dry eye can also make your eyes watery. Typically, dry eye doesn’t cause a permanent change in your vision. It can make your eyesight blurry for short periods of time, but the blurriness will go away on its own or improve when you blink. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Dry Eye 2017|
|Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) causes people who have lost a lot of sight to see things that aren’t there. Medically, this is known as having hallucinations. CBS hallucinations are only caused by sight loss and aren’t a sign that you
have a mental health problem. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Charles Bonnet Syndrome 2017
|Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is a condition where your vitreous comes away from the retina at the back of your eye. This detachment is caused by changes in your
vitreous gel. PVD isn’t painful and it doesn’t cause sight loss, but you may have symptoms such as seeing floaters (small dark spots or shapes) and flashing lights. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Posterior Vitreous Detachement 2017
|Smoking and eye disease
Smoking has been shown to increase the incidence (the risk of presenting with a condition) and severity of a number of important sight threatening conditions of the eye. It has also been associated with some less severe conditions that can cause discomfort and disquiet in people who develop them.
‘Smoking and eye disease‘ includes details of the main conditions and how they affect patients.