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Information Booklets


amd2 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects a tiny part of the retina at the back of your eye, called the macula. AMD causes changes to the macula, which leads to problems with your central vision. Understanding Age-related (2019)macular degeneration (2019)


A cataract is a clouding of part of your eye called the lens. Your vision becomes blurred because the cataract is like frosted glass, interfering with your sight. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Cataracts (2017)
  Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the name given to a group of hereditary eye disorders. These disorders affect the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye, in which the first stages of seeing take place. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Retinitis Pigmentosa (2017)
Retinal detachments often develop in eyes with retinas weakened by a hole or tear. This allows fluid to seep underneath, weakening the attachment so that the retina becomes detached – rather like wallpaper peeling off a damp wall.

Read the Understanding Retinal Detachment Information Booklet (2020)

Nystagmus is an involuntary movement of the eyes – usually from side to side, but sometimes the eyes oscillate up and down or even in a circular motion. Most people with nystagmus have vision which is much worse than average – well below what is considered to be short sighted.

Read the RNIB Nystagmus Information Booklet (2020)

glaucoma Glaucoma is the name for a group of eye conditions in which the optic nerve is damaged at the point at which it leaves the eye. This nerve carries information from the light sensitive layer in your eye, the retina, to the brain where it is received as a picture.

Read the Understanding Glaucoma (2019)


diabetes Estimates suggest that nearly one person in twenty five in the UK is affected by diabetes mellitus, a condition which means that, due to a lack of insulin, the body cannot cope normally with sugar and other carbohydrates in the diet. Diabetes can start in childhood, but more often begins in later life.

Read the Understanding Eye conditions related to diabetes (2019)


Dry eye is an eye condition caused by a problem with tears. Dry eye can make your eye feel uncomfortable, red, scratchy and irritated. Despite the name, having dry eye can also make your eyes watery. Typically, dry eye doesn’t cause a permanent change in your vision. It can make your eyesight blurry for short periods of time, but the blurriness will go away on its own or improve when you blink. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Dry Eye (2017)
  Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) causes people who have lost a lot of sight to see things that aren’t there. Medically, this is known as having hallucinations. CBS hallucinations are only caused by sight loss and aren’t a sign that you have a mental health problem. RCOphth RNIB Understanding Charles Bonnet Syndrome (2017)
  Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is a condition where your vitreous comes away from the retina at the back of your eye. This detachment is caused by changes in your vitreous gel.

PVD isn’t painful and it doesn’t cause sight loss, but you may have symptoms such as seeing floaters (small dark spots or shapes) and flashing lights.

Read the RNIB Posterior Vitreous Detachment Booklet (2020)

A cataract can make your vision blurry or misty, a bit like trying to look through frosted glass. Some babies are born with cataracts or develop cataracts at a very early age. RNIB Congenital Cataracts Patient Information (2019)